The Baseball Cube

1987 Gulf Coast Astros

1987 Gulf Coast Astros

Gulf Coast League (Rk)

MORE  
minor franchise:
category:
League:
division:
Southern
level:
Rk
year:
MLB Parent:
record:
32-30 (.516)
GBL:
7.5
rank:
3
lgrk:
5
ballpark:
Sarasota
Attendance:
0
att rk:
0
year range:
1977-2020
Subscribe to TBC PREMIUM ... Surf ad-free, get the daily PLAYER TRACKER (take a tour), access to ... more
than a dozen research applications including Player Comparison tool, analysis features and additional datagrid functionality!
Batting Statistics
*Reload page to restore grid
Grid Actions:
PREMIUM subscribers get additional grid functionality
Tips/tools for using data grids:

  • Manual Filter: Single-click a row to highlight in orange. Click FILTER ROWS button to show only those rows in the grid
  • Quick-Filter: Double-Click on a cell value to filter the grid on rows that have same value in same column. Click a statistic to view all values equal or higher
  • Select Rows: Single-click rows to select multiple rows for future action or visibility.
  • Hide Rows: Click the` minus sign in the first column to hide the row in the grid.
  • Restore Rows: Once rows are filtered, click RESTORE ROWS to show all rows once again
  • Sort: Click a column in the first header row to sort data by values in that column. Click again to reverse the original sort. Some cells have custom sort keys that will sort them logically instead of alphanumerically.
  • Compare/Analyze: Click multiple rows for players of interest. In addition to filtering, you can quickly COMPARE player stats or use the MULTI-PLAYER STAT VIEWER to view multiple player cards on the same page.
  • Leaders: On stat grids. Top-10 ranked statistics are highlighted in gray. #1 rank is in light green. (PREMIUM setting)
  • Export to CSV: Click CSV to convert the full grid into a comma-delimeted display. From there, you can copy/paste to another application.
  # player name age ba pos   g ab   r   h 2b 3b hr rbi sb cs bb so hbp sh sf iw gdp tb pa xbh 1b avg obp slg ops secA iso babip bb% so% so/bb ab/hr hilvl mlb years stat years
-- Manny Acta 18 R 2b 59 235 37 63 5 2 2 13 5 10 13 37 2 3 0 0 0 78 253 9 54 .268 .312 .332 .644 .098 .064 .311 5.14 14.62 2.85 117.50 AA -- 1987-1991
-- Eric Anthony 19 L of 60 216 38 57 11 6 10 46 2 2 26 58 2 0 1 3 0 110 245 27 30 .264 .347 .509 .856 .366 .245 .315 10.61 23.67 2.23 21.60 MLB 1989-1997 1986-2001
-- Ramon Cedeno 20 R of 60 216 39 63 9 2 2 27 5 8 24 26 1 0 5 0 0 82 246 13 50 .292 .358 .380 .737 .185 .088 .316 9.76 10.57 1.08 108.00 A+ -- 1987-1998
-- Carlos Henry 19 L of 54 185 29 52 4 1 0 17 6 7 28 44 2 1 1 4 0 58 217 5 47 .281 .380 .314 .693 .178 .032 .366 12.90 20.28 1.57 -- A -- 1986-1989
-- Kenneth Crockom 19 R of 45 139 25 29 8 0 0 12 12 6 37 31 4 1 2 0 0 37 183 8 21 .209 .385 .266 .651 .367 .058 .264 20.22 16.94 0.84 -- A- -- 1987-1988
-- Pedro De Los Santos 18 R ss 46 137 17 32 2 3 0 13 7 3 14 33 3 3 0 1 0 40 157 5 27 .234 .318 .292 .610 .190 .058 .308 8.92 21.02 2.36 -- A -- 1987-1989
-- Tony Eusebio 20 R c 42 125 26 26 1 2 1 15 8 2 18 19 7 0 0 0 0 34 150 4 22 .208 .340 .272 .612 .256 .064 .238 12.00 12.67 1.06 125.00 MLB 1991-2001 1985-2001
-- Andy Ruscitto 19 L 1b 45 122 13 22 4 0 1 10 4 4 20 47 6 0 2 1 0 29 150 5 17 .180 .320 .238 .558 .221 .057 .276 13.33 31.33 2.35 122.00 Rk -- 1987-1988
-- Mike Beams 20 R 3b 46 122 22 22 5 0 1 21 5 2 15 23 1 3 3 3 0 30 144 6 16 .180 .270 .246 .515 .213 .066 .208 10.42 15.97 1.53 122.00 AA -- 1986-1993
-- Joseph Ortiz 20 R c-3b 36 121 18 35 8 0 4 25 3 1 18 20 6 0 2 0 0 55 147 12 23 .289 .401 .455 .856 .331 .165 .313 12.24 13.61 1.11 30.25 AAA -- 1987-1990
-- David Henderson 18 R ss 30 78 11 17 1 1 0 9 0 3 21 23 3 1 0 1 0 20 103 2 15 .218 .402 .256 .658 .269 .038 .309 20.39 22.33 1.10 -- A+ -- 1987-1992
-- Brian Bennett 20 R c 25 75 4 15 2 0 0 9 1 1 10 23 1 0 1 0 0 17 87 2 13 .200 .299 .227 .526 .160 .027 .283 11.49 26.44 2.30 -- A -- 1987-1990
-- David Washington 18 R 2b 27 68 9 19 3 0 0 6 2 2 7 17 1 1 0 1 0 22 77 3 16 .279 .355 .324 .679 .147 .044 .373 9.09 22.08 2.43 -- Rk -- 1987-1988
-- David Cunningham 20 R 3b-ss 12 26 8 10 0 0 0 5 2 1 5 6 2 0 1 0 0 10 34 0 10 .385 .500 .385 .885 .231 .000 .476 14.71 17.65 1.20 -- A -- 1987-1989
-- David Panizzi 0 R of 7 25 5 10 0 0 1 5 4 0 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 13 28 1 9 .400 .464 .520 .984 .400 .120 .563 10.71 28.57 2.67 25.00 Rk -- 1984-1987
-- Francisco Perez 17 R p 12 14 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 10 0 3 0 0 0 1 21 0 1 .071 .278 .071 .349 .286 .000 .250 19.05 47.62 2.50 -- A -- 1987-1990
-- Fred Costello 20 R p 13 11 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 7 0 5 0 0 0 1 21 0 1 .091 .375 .091 .466 .455 .000 .250 23.81 33.33 1.40 -- AAA -- 1986-1995
-- Daniel Newman 23 L p 12 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 .000 .182 .000 .182 .222 .000 .000 18.18 45.45 2.50 -- A -- 1987-1988
-- Roger Locke 18 R p 13 9 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 13 0 2 .222 .364 .222 .586 .222 .000 .500 15.38 38.46 2.50 -- A -- 1987-1990
-- Rogelio Marrero 18 L p 17 9 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 0 1 .111 .333 .111 .444 .333 .000 .500 25.00 58.33 2.33 -- A+ -- 1987-1989
-- Chris Lee 22 R p 15 7 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 0 1 .143 .143 .143 .286 .000 .000 .200 0.00 28.57 -- -- A -- 1986-1988
-- Adam Amick 19 R p 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 0.00 40.00 -- -- Rk -- 1987-1988
-- Dennis Tafoya 22 R p 19 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 .000 .200 .000 .200 .250 .000 .000 16.67 33.33 2.00 -- AAA -- 1987-1993
-- Ernesto Vasquez 19 -- p 14 3 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 4 1 1 .667 .667 1.000 1.667 .333 .333 1.000 0.00 25.00 -- -- Rk -- 1986-1987
-- Frankie Higginbotham 19 R p 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 0.00 50.00 -- -- Rk -- 1987-1987
-- Mike Hook 18 R p 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 -- 0.00 100.00 -- -- AA -- 1986-1992
-- Gary Murphy 25 R p 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 0.00 0.00 -- -- A+ -- 1985-1989
-- Totals (27 players) 18.8 -- -- 730 1964 307 480 64 17 22 240 66 52 276 458 41 26 18 14 0 644 2325 103 377 .244 .347 .328 .675 .231 .084 .305 11.87 19.70 1.66 89.27 MLB 1991-2001 1985-2001
Pitching Statistics
*Reload page to restore grid
Grid Actions:
PREMIUM subscribers get additional grid functionality
Tips/tools for using data grids:

  • Manual Filter: Single-click a row to highlight in orange. Click FILTER ROWS button to show only those rows in the grid
  • Quick-Filter: Double-Click on a cell value to filter the grid on rows that have same value in same column. Click a statistic to view all values equal or higher
  • Select Rows: Single-click rows to select multiple rows for future action or visibility.
  • Hide Rows: Click the` minus sign in the first column to hide the row in the grid.
  • Restore Rows: Once rows are filtered, click RESTORE ROWS to show all rows once again
  • Sort: Click a column in the first header row to sort data by values in that column. Click again to reverse the original sort. Some cells have custom sort keys that will sort them logically instead of alphanumerically.
  • Compare/Analyze: Click multiple rows for players of interest. In addition to filtering, you can quickly COMPARE player stats or use the MULTI-PLAYER STAT VIEWER to view multiple player cards on the same page.
  • Leaders: On stat grids. Top-10 ranked statistics are highlighted in gray. #1 rank is in light green. (PREMIUM setting)
  • Export to CSV: Click CSV to convert the full grid into a comma-delimeted display. From there, you can copy/paste to another application.
  # player name age throws role   w   l   g gs cg sh gr gf sv ip   h   r er hr bb so wp bk hb era whip h9 hr9 bb9 so9 ra9 so/bb hilvl mlb years stat years
-- Francisco Perez 17 R -- 2 6 12 12 4 0 0 0 0 80.1 82 41 35 3 28 51 9 0 1 3.92 1.37 9.19 0.34 3.14 5.71 4.59 1.82 A -- 1987-1990
-- Daniel Newman 23 L -- 7 2 12 11 3 1 1 1 0 76.2 55 21 12 5 12 59 6 0 1 1.41 0.87 6.46 0.59 1.41 6.93 2.47 4.92 A -- 1987-1988
-- Fred Costello 20 R -- 5 7 13 12 0 0 1 1 0 72.2 74 40 26 1 28 45 9 0 1 3.22 1.40 9.17 0.12 3.47 5.57 4.95 1.61 AAA -- 1986-1995
-- Roger Locke 18 R -- 3 3 13 13 0 0 0 0 0 59.0 56 34 31 6 27 46 11 0 1 4.73 1.41 8.54 0.92 4.12 7.02 5.19 1.70 A -- 1987-1990
-- Chris Lee 22 R -- 5 2 15 6 1 0 9 6 4 55.0 37 12 7 1 16 59 1 0 2 1.15 0.96 6.05 0.16 2.62 9.65 1.96 3.69 A -- 1986-1988
-- Rogelio Marrero 18 L -- 4 1 16 0 0 0 16 10 3 42.2 21 12 7 2 16 36 5 0 1 1.48 0.87 4.43 0.42 3.37 7.59 2.53 2.25 A+ -- 1987-1989
-- Dennis Tafoya 22 R -- 2 1 19 0 0 0 19 16 5 41.1 35 22 12 0 9 16 3 0 0 2.61 1.06 7.62 0.00 1.96 3.48 4.79 1.78 AAA -- 1987-1993
-- Ernesto Vasquez 19 -- -- 1 3 14 0 0 0 14 11 0 34.0 43 24 19 1 7 16 1 0 2 5.03 1.47 11.38 0.26 1.85 4.24 6.35 2.29 Rk -- 1986-1987
-- Chris Small 22 R -- 0 2 3 0 0 0 3 1 0 3.2 11 6 5 0 1 1 0 0 2 12.27 3.27 27.00 0.00 2.45 2.45 14.73 1.00 A- -- 1987-1988
-- Mike Hook 18 L -- 1 1 6 4 1 1 2 0 0 19.1 23 16 11 1 11 16 4 0 0 5.12 1.76 10.71 0.47 5.12 7.45 7.45 1.45 AA -- 1986-1992
-- Adam Amick 19 R -- 2 0 6 1 0 0 5 2 0 17.1 18 14 13 2 3 7 3 0 2 6.75 1.21 9.35 1.04 1.56 3.63 7.27 2.33 Rk -- 1987-1988
-- Frankie Higginbotham 19 R -- 0 2 5 3 0 0 2 0 0 13.0 17 16 6 0 8 8 0 0 2 4.15 1.92 11.77 0.00 5.54 5.54 11.08 1.00 Rk -- 1987-1987
-- Gary Murphy 25 R -- 0 0 4 0 0 0 4 4 1 10.0 10 7 7 0 4 7 2 0 0 6.30 1.40 9.00 0.00 3.60 6.30 6.30 1.75 A+ -- 1985-1989
-- Mike Beams 20 R -- 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1.0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 9.00 2.00 9.00 0.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 1.00 AA -- 1986-1993
-- Totals (14 players) 20.1 -- -- 32 30 139 62 9 2 77 53 13 526.0 483 266 192 22 171 368 54 0 15 3.29 1.24 8.26 0.38 2.93 6.30 4.55 2.15 AA -- 1986-1993
Fielding Statistics
*Reload page to restore grid
Grid Actions:
PREMIUM subscribers get additional grid functionality
Tips/tools for using data grids:

  • Manual Filter: Single-click a row to highlight in orange. Click FILTER ROWS button to show only those rows in the grid
  • Quick-Filter: Double-Click on a cell value to filter the grid on rows that have same value in same column. Click a statistic to view all values equal or higher
  • Select Rows: Single-click rows to select multiple rows for future action or visibility.
  • Hide Rows: Click the` minus sign in the first column to hide the row in the grid.
  • Restore Rows: Once rows are filtered, click RESTORE ROWS to show all rows once again
  • Sort: Click a column in the first header row to sort data by values in that column. Click again to reverse the original sort. Some cells have custom sort keys that will sort them logically instead of alphanumerically.
  • Compare/Analyze: Click multiple rows for players of interest. In addition to filtering, you can quickly COMPARE player stats or use the MULTI-PLAYER STAT VIEWER to view multiple player cards on the same page.
  • Leaders: On stat grids. Top-10 ranked statistics are highlighted in gray. #1 rank is in light green. (PREMIUM setting)
  • Export to CSV: Click CSV to convert the full grid into a comma-delimeted display. From there, you can copy/paste to another application.
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Tony Eusebio 20 c 30 0 0.0 194 23 4 2 221 217 0 0 -- .982 7.2 -- -- 48.4 71.4 1 MLB 1991-2001 1985-2001
Brian Bennett 20 c 22 0 0.0 131 17 2 2 150 148 0 0 -- .987 6.7 -- -- 35.5 88.0 2 A -- 1987-1990
Joseph Ortiz 20 c 12 0 0.0 69 9 2 0 80 78 0 0 -- .975 6.5 -- -- 19.4 33.3 3 AAA -- 1987-1990
Totals (3 players) 20.0 c 64 0 0 394 49 8 4 451 443 0 0 -- .982 6.9 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Andy Ruscitto 19 1b 40 0 0.0 344 27 3 15 374 371 0 0 -- .992 9.3 -- -- 64.5 88.9 1 Rk -- 1987-1988
Carlos Henry 19 1b 16 0 0.0 141 6 4 4 151 147 0 0 -- .974 9.2 -- -- 25.8 29.6 2 A -- 1986-1989
Joseph Ortiz 20 1b 10 0 0.0 95 2 2 6 99 97 0 0 -- .980 9.7 -- -- 16.1 27.8 3 AAA -- 1987-1990
Tony Eusebio 20 1b 1 0 0.0 10 1 0 1 11 11 0 0 -- 1.000 11.0 -- -- 1.6 2.4 4 MLB 1991-2001 1985-2001
Totals (4 players) 19.5 1b 67 0 0 590 36 9 26 635 626 0 0 -- .986 9.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Manny Acta 18 2b 45 0 0.0 86 92 10 11 188 178 0 0 -- .947 4.0 -- -- 72.6 76.3 1 AA -- 1987-1991
David Washington 18 2b 20 0 0.0 30 53 5 10 88 83 0 0 -- .943 4.2 -- -- 32.3 74.1 2 Rk -- 1987-1988
David Cunningham 20 2b 2 0 0.0 4 5 0 0 9 9 0 0 -- 1.000 4.5 -- -- 3.2 16.7 3 A -- 1987-1989
Mike Beams 20 2b 2 0 0.0 0 5 1 0 6 5 0 0 -- .833 2.5 -- -- 3.2 4.3 3 AA -- 1986-1993
Totals (4 players) 19.0 2b 69 0 0 120 155 16 21 291 275 0 0 -- .945 4.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
David Cunningham 20 3b 4 0 0.0 2 10 4 0 16 12 0 0 -- .750 3.0 -- -- 6.5 33.3 5 A -- 1987-1989
Mike Beams 20 3b 31 0 0.0 21 55 11 5 87 76 0 0 -- .874 2.5 -- -- 50.0 67.4 1 AA -- 1986-1993
Manny Acta 18 3b 14 0 0.0 12 30 11 3 53 42 0 0 -- .792 3.0 -- -- 22.6 23.7 2 AA -- 1987-1991
Joseph Ortiz 20 3b 11 0 0.0 8 13 6 1 27 21 0 0 -- .778 1.9 -- -- 17.7 30.6 3 AAA -- 1987-1990
Pedro De Los Santos 18 3b 7 0 0.0 1 10 2 1 13 11 0 0 -- .846 1.6 -- -- 11.3 15.2 4 A -- 1987-1989
David Henderson 18 3b 1 0 0.0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 -- 1.000 2.0 -- -- 1.6 3.3 6 A+ -- 1987-1992
Totals (6 players) 19.0 3b 68 0 0 44 120 34 10 198 164 0 0 -- .828 2.4 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Pedro De Los Santos 18 ss 37 0 0.0 41 109 15 7 165 150 0 0 -- .909 4.1 -- -- 59.7 80.4 1 A -- 1987-1989
David Henderson 18 ss 26 0 0.0 25 62 11 8 98 87 0 0 -- .888 3.3 -- -- 41.9 86.7 2 A+ -- 1987-1992
David Cunningham 20 ss 3 0 0.0 3 12 0 2 15 15 0 0 -- 1.000 5.0 -- -- 4.8 25.0 3 A -- 1987-1989
Mike Beams 20 ss 1 0 0.0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 -- 1.000 1.0 -- -- 1.6 2.2 4 AA -- 1986-1993
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Totals (4 players) 19.0 ss 67 0 0 70 183 26 17 279 253 0 0 -- .907 3.8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Ramon Cedeno 20 of 59 0 0.0 104 9 4 0 117 113 0 0 -- .966 1.9 -- -- 95.2 98.3 1 A+ -- 1987-1998
David Panizzi 0 of 6 0 0.0 5 0 1 0 6 5 0 0 -- .833 0.8 -- -- 9.7 85.7 5 Rk -- 1984-1987
Eric Anthony 19 of 54 0 0.0 100 11 5 1 116 111 0 0 -- .957 2.1 -- -- 87.1 90.0 2 MLB 1989-1997 1986-2001
Mike Beams 20 of 5 0 0.0 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 -- 1.000 0.4 -- -- 8.1 10.9 6 AA -- 1986-1993
Kenneth Crockom 19 of 38 0 0.0 50 3 2 0 55 53 0 0 -- .964 1.4 -- -- 61.3 84.4 3 A- -- 1987-1988
Carlos Henry 19 of 34 0 0.0 66 2 0 0 68 68 0 0 -- 1.000 2.0 -- -- 54.8 63.0 4 A -- 1986-1989
Totals (6 players) 16.2 of 196 0 0 326 26 12 1 364 352 0 0 -- .967 1.8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
player name age pos   g gs inn po   a   e dp tc tsc sb cs sb% fpct rfg rfi rf9i tm shr pl shr tm rk hilvl mlb years stat years
Adam Amick 19 p 6 0 0.0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 -- 1.000 0.2 -- -- 9.7 100.0 9 Rk -- 1987-1988
Mike Hook 18 p 6 0 0.0 0 1 3 0 4 1 0 0 -- .250 0.2 -- -- 9.7 100.0 9 AA -- 1986-1992
Frankie Higginbotham 19 p 5 0 0.0 1 4 1 0 6 5 0 0 -- .833 1.0 -- -- 8.1 100.0 11 Rk -- 1987-1987
Gary Murphy 25 p 4 0 0.0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 -- 1.000 0.5 -- -- 6.5 100.0 12 A+ -- 1985-1989
Chris Small 22 p 3 0 0.0 2 0 1 1 3 2 0 0 -- .667 0.7 -- -- 4.8 100.0 13 A- -- 1987-1988
Dennis Tafoya 22 p 19 0 0.0 5 12 2 0 19 17 0 0 -- .895 0.9 -- -- 30.6 100.0 1 AAA -- 1987-1993
Rogelio Marrero 18 p 16 0 0.0 0 8 0 0 8 8 0 0 -- 1.000 0.5 -- -- 25.8 94.1 2 A+ -- 1987-1989
Chris Lee 22 p 15 0 0.0 2 14 0 0 16 16 0 0 -- 1.000 1.1 -- -- 24.2 100.0 3 A -- 1986-1988
Ernesto Vasquez 19 p 14 0 0.0 2 7 0 0 9 9 0 0 -- 1.000 0.6 -- -- 22.6 100.0 4 Rk -- 1986-1987
Fred Costello 20 p 13 0 0.0 7 7 3 0 17 14 0 0 -- .824 1.1 -- -- 21.0 100.0 5 AAA -- 1986-1995
Roger Locke 18 p 13 0 0.0 4 16 4 1 24 20 0 0 -- .833 1.5 -- -- 21.0 100.0 5 A -- 1987-1990
Daniel Newman 23 p 12 0 0.0 8 27 4 1 39 35 0 0 -- .897 2.9 -- -- 19.4 100.0 7 A -- 1987-1988
Francisco Perez 17 p 12 0 0.0 0 13 2 0 15 13 0 0 -- .867 1.1 -- -- 19.4 100.0 7 A -- 1987-1990
Totals (13 players) 20.2 p 138 0 0 34 109 20 3 163 143 0 0 -- .877 1.0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --