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STATISTICS GLOSSARY


Batting Stats | Pitching Stats | Fielding Stats

Batting Statistics


2B Doubles When a player reaches second on a batted ball
3B Triple When a player reaches thirs on a batted ball
AB At Bats A plate appearance that results in a ball put in play (without a sacrifice) or a strikeout. All other plate appearance results are not counted as an at bat.
AVG Batting Average Formula: {h/ab}. Used to measure the percentage of time (3 decimal places) that a player reaches base on a batted ball against times that he had the opportunity to put the ball in play. A batting average of .300 is considered very good.
BABIP Batting Average on Balls put In Play Formula: { (h-hr)/(ab-so-hr+sf) }. A player's ability to get a hit on balls put in play. For batters, can be used to measure a hitter's skill on how hard he hits the ball and his placement.
BAL Balls The number (or %) of balls incurred by the batter.
BB Base on balls/Walks Each instance of a player reaching base by receiving 4 pitches balls whether intentional or unintentional.
BB% Walk% Formula: { bb/pa }. How many times a player walks per 100 plate appearances.
BB/K Walks per strikeout Formula: { bb/so }. A ratio that compares the number of walks to strikeouts for a batter with the intention to see if a player has more positive non-contact at bats compared to negative.
BrOuts Baserunning Outs Thrown out on basepaths by trying for an extra base or for other reason. Does not include being forced-out at a base or caught stealings.
CS Caught Stealing When a player attempting to steal a base is thrown out by the catcher or pitcher.
D13 1st to 3rd on a Double Number of times, as a runner, that the player has advanced from 1st to 3rd on a double.
D1H Scored from 1st on a Double Number of times, as a runner, that the player has scored from 1st on a double.
FB Flyballs At bats resulting in a fly ball, regardless of result. Line drives, fly balls and popups are all considered flyballs for the purpose of this category.
FO Force outs or Fielders Choice Batter's at bat resulted in a runner other than himself being thrown out at a base. The batter is deemed to have reached base only becauase the fielder elected to throw out a different runner and not the batter and is therefore not awarded a hit.
G Games  
GB Groundballs At bats resulting in a ground ball, regardless of result.
G/F Groundball/flyball ratio Formula: { groundballs/flyballs }. Indicates how many groundballs to flyballs a player hits. A value of 2.0 would indicate that a player hits 2 groundballs for every flyball.
GDP Grounded into double play A ground ball hit by batter that results in the defense recording 2 outs. If a runner scores, the batter is not awarded a run batted in.
GS Games Started # of times a player was included in the team's starting lineup.
H Hits Each time a player reaches base without the result being an error or a forceout. Singles + Doubles + triples + Homers.
HBP Hit by Pitch A batter is considered hit by a pitch when a pitched ball hits his body or equipment and the umpire has deemed that it was not intentional.
HR Home Runs A ball hit fair over the outfield fence or a batter running around the bases on a batted ball without an error being incurred.
HR2Run 2-run Home Runs A home run hit with 1 man on base.
HR3Run 3-run Home Runs A home run hit with 2 men on base.
HR% Home Run Percentage Formula: { hr/pa }. For each 100 plate appearnces, how many home runs the player has hit.
HrRBIs Home Run RBIs # of RBIs earned from home runs hit.
IBB Intentional Walks When a pitcher/catcher combination throw intentional balls (catcher stands up with a glove target high and away) to a batter to put him on base without having to pitch to him.
InfH (IH) Infield Hits When a batter reaches first base without the ball leaving the infield or the ball being fielded by an infielder.
ISO Isolated Power Formula: { slg-avg }. Tries to measure a player's raw power by removing singles from consideration.
MultiHR Multiple Home Run Games Games with two or more homers.
OBP On Base Percentage Formula: { (h+bb+hbp)/(ab+bb+hbp+sf) }. The percentage of all plate appearances (minus sacrifice hits) where a player has reached base. Whereas batting average ignores walks and hit by pitch as positive batting events, OBP uses all instances of a batter reaching base to provide a different view of a player's effectiveness. An obp of .360 is considered good.
OPS On base Plus Slugging Formula: { obp+slg }. A measure that tries to take into account every baseball event and rate a player's true value to his team offensively. An OPS of 820 would be considered good.
Outs Batting Outs Each time a player's at bat results in an out on the basepaths whereby the player did not earn a hit.
PA Plate Appearances Each time a player's trip to the plate has a result.
P/PA Pitchers per Plate Appearances Formula: { pitches/pa }. Indicates the average number of pitches a batter faces for each plate appearance.
PH Pinch hits Hits while batter was inserted into the batting order to replace another batter.
PIT Pitches The number of pitches a batter faced.
Popups Popups A ball hit high into the air in the infield. A flyball to the outfield is not ruled a popup.
PoT Pickoff Throws The number of times a pitcher executed a pickoff throw to a base occupied by the player.
R Run Scored Each time a player crosses home plate and his team is awarded a run.
RBI Runs batted in An RBI is awarded for each runner batted in by the batter (including himself) in his at bat. An RBI is awarded for outs but not for double play groundouts.
RC Runs Created Formula used on TBC: Part A {H+BB-CS+HBP-GDP) Part B { (1.125xSingles)+(1.69*doubles)+(3.02*Triples)+(3.73*Homers)+(.29*(BB-IBB+HBP))+(.492*(SH+SF+SB))-(.04*so) } Part C { AB+BB+HBP+SH+SF). Complete Formula using A,B,C is { (((2.4c+A)(3c+B))/9c )-.9c. This algorithm is intended to measure the number of runs a player has created in his at bats and is intended to be a better measure of his offensive contribution.
RC/G Runs Created per game Formula: { rc/(outs/27) }. Designed to determine the number of runs a team would score with only this player in the lineup. Allows for easier comparison between players.
ROE Reached on error Batter reached base as the result of an error and not a hit.
S12 1st to 2nd on a single Number of times, as a runner, that the player has advanced from 1st to 2nd on a single.
S13 1st to 3rd on a single Number of times, as a runner, that the player has advanced from 1st to 3rd on a single.
S23 2ndt to 3rd on a single Number of times, as a runner, that the player has advanced from 2nd to 3rd on a single.
S2H Scored from 2nd on a single Number of times, as a runner, that the player has scored from 2nd on a single.
SA (or SecA) Secondary Average Formula: { (TB-H+BB+SB-CS)/AB }. A complimentary measure to batting average with the added input of bases earned through extra base hits, walks and net stolen bases.
SB Stolen Bases When a player running while pitcher pitches makes it to the next base before the catcher (or pitcher) can throw him out.
SB3 Steal of 3b The # of times a player stole third base.
SH Sacrifice Hits A bunted ball by the batter where at least one baserunner is advanced. The batter is deemed to have sacrificed his at bat and he is not awarded an official at bat.
SF Sacrifice Flies A batted ball in the air that results in a teammate scoring from any base (mostly 3b) after tagging up when the ball is caught. The batter is not awarded an at bat.
Slams Grand Slams Home runs with the bases loaded (runner on every base).
SLG Slugging Percentage Formula: { tb/ab }. A measure of a player's power or their ability to produce bases. Batting average and On Base Percentage count all hits equally while slugging percentage considers hits with more bases earned as more valuable then lesser hits. A slugging of .450 would be considered good.
SO Strikeouts A player ruled out after swinging and missing (or tipping) strike 3 or taking strike 3.
SO% Strikeout% Formula: { so/pa }. How many times a player strikes out per 100 plate appearances.
STR Strikes The number (or %) of strikes incurred by the batter including batted balls put into play (which are considered strikes).
SWG Swinging and miss strikes The number (or %) of swing and miss strikes incurred by the batter.
TB Total Bases The total number of bases accumulated for all hits. Singles count as 1 base, doubles count as 2, triples count as 3 and home runs count as 4 bases.
XBH% Extra Base Hit % Formula: { (2b+3b+hr)/h }. The percentage of a player's hits that are for extra bases.


Pitching Statistics


2B Doubles against The number of doubles allowed
3B Triples against The number of triples allowed
AB At Bats Against The number of official at bats against a pitcher. This is not the actual number of batters faced.
BAL Balls The number (or %) of balls incurred by the pitcher.
BAVG Batting Average Against Formula: {h/ab}. Aggregated batting average of all batters against this pitcher.
BB Walks Allowed The number of bases on balls allowed by a pitcher whether or not they were intentional.
BB9 Walks per 9 Innings Formula: { (9/IP)*BB }. A normlized stat that allows comparison of ability to limit walks to opposing batters over each 9 innings.
BB/SO Walks per strikeout Formula: { bb/k }. A ratio that compares the number of walks to strikeouts for a pitcher with the intention to see if a pitcher has more positive non-contact at bats against compared to negative.
BK Balks Where a pitcher makes an illegal movement on the mound intended to deceive a batter or runner resulting in a runner being allowed to advanced a base. If no runner on base, a balk is not charged but instead the movement will be considered a pitch that resulted in a ball.
BS Blown Saves Attributed to a pitcher who enters a game in a save situation but leaves with a loss or the loss of his team's lead.
CG Complete Games When a pitcher is the only pitcher used for a team during a game regardless of the number of innings pitched, provided the game was considered an official game.
CS Caught Stealings The number of runners caught stealing while pitcher was on mound.
ER Earned Runs Similar to runs except only charged to the pitcher if the baserunner did not reach on error. If an error would have resulted in a third out, all subsequent runs are deemed unearned since the inning would have been over.
ERA Earned Run average Formula: { (9/IP)*ER. A popular metric used determine the number of earned runs a pitcher gives up every 9 innings. An ERA of less than 3 is considered excellent though it often depends on an era or a league.
G Games Pitched Games in which a pitcher faced at least one batter either a starter or as a reliever.
GB/FB Groundball/flyball ratio Formula: { groundballs/flyballs }. Indicates how many groundballs to flyballs a pitcher allows. A value of 2.0 would indicate that a pitcher forces 2 groundballs for every flyball. In general, a pitcher allowing more groundballs is more effective at not allowing home runs.
GF Games Finished Games in which the pitcher was the last pitcher for his team provided he entered the game in relief and did not start the game.
GR Games Relieved Games pitched in which a pitcher did not start the game.
GS Games Started Where a pitcher was the first pitcher for his team in a game.
H Hits Allowed The number of hits a pitcher allowed
H9 Hits per 9 Innings Formula: { (9/IP)*H }. A normlized stat that allows comparison of ability to limit hits to opposing batters over each 9 innings. Ideally, a pitcher wants to allow less than 9 hits per 9 innings.
HB Hit Batsmen The number of batters hit by a pitcher where they were awarded first base.
HLD Holds A stat used for relief pitchers to indicate times when they entered the game in a save situation and left the game with the lead still in tact. The pitcher cannot finish the game for a hold to be awarded. Designed to be a statistic to reward setup men.
HR Home runs Allowed The number of homers a pitcher allowed
HR9 Home runs per 9 Innings Formula: { (9/IP)*HR }. A normlized stat that allows comparison of ability to limit home runs to opposing batters over each 9 innings.
INN/ST Inning Started in Game The average inning a pitcher entered a game as a reliever. Used to give viewer an idea of how the pitcher was used during the season. A value of 9 would indicate a closer while a value of 7 or 8 would indicate likely that he was a setup man. A value lower than this would indicate mopup man or a reliever without a defined role.
IP Innings Pitched Tracked in thirds based on the # of outs a pitcher records while on the mound. Every 3 outs results in an inning pitched regardless of whether the outs were recorded in the same inning.
IP-R Innings Pitched as Reliever For games where pitcher was a relief pitcher
IP-S Innings Pitched as starter For games where pitcher was the starting pitcher.
Ir Inherited Runners The number of runners on base when a relief pitcher enters the game.
Is Inherited Runners Scored The number of inherited runners that the relief pitcher allowed to score.
InRV Inherited Runners Value The value of inherited runners on base when a relief pitcher enters the game where a runner on 1st has a value of 3, a runner on 2nd has a value of 2 and a runner on 3rd has a value of 1 in an attempt to provide some leeway for relief pitchers entering with a runner on 3b and less than 2 outs whereby allowing the runner to score is not an absolute failure.
InRS Inherited Runners Value scored The value of inherited runners that scored (see InRV to see scoring).
L Losses Games where the pitcher was awarded the loss for being on the mound when his team fell behind for the last time in a game that they lost.
P/PA Pitchers per Plate Appearances Formula: { pitches/pa }. Indicates the average number of pitches a pitcher throws for each plate appearance against him.
PIT Pitches The number of pitches a pitcher has thrown.
PO Pickoffs The number of runners picked off of base.
QS Quality Starts A game in which a starting pitcher lasts at least 6 innings and allows 3 or less earned runs.
R Runs allowed The number of runs allowed to score that were charged to the pitcher. A runner put on base by a pitcher belongs to him, even if he has been replaced on the mound. All runs, regardless of whether they were the pitcher's fault or not are counted.
SB Stolen Bases allowed The number of runners who stole a base while pitcher was on mound
Score Inherited Runners Score A TBC metric for relief pitchers that measures a relief pitcher's overall success at cleaning up baserunner messes that he inherits.
SHO Shutouts Games where the pitcher did not allow a run and completed the game while receiving the win. A game in which a pitcher allowed no earned runs but allowed at least one run is not considered a shutout.
SO Strikeouts The number of batters struck out by the pitcher. Includes strikeouts where the runner reached first base on the strike out.
SO9 Strikeouts per 9 Innings Formula: { (9/IP)*SO }. A normlized stat that allows comparison of ability to limit hits to opposing batters over each 9 innings.
STR Strikes The number (or %) of strikes incurred by the pitcher including batted balls put into play (which are considered strikes).
SWG Swinging and miss strikes The number (or %) of swing and miss strikes induced by the pitcher.
SV Saves Where a pitcher was the last pitcher for his team in a victory where he did not receive the victory and pitched at least 1/3 of an inning. He will also have had to satisfy one of the following criteria:
  • He enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and pitches for at least one inning
  • He enters the game, regardless of the count, with the potential tying run either on base, at bat or on deck
  • He pitches for at least three innings
  • TBF Total Batters Faced The total number of batters faced by a pitcher regardless of outcome so long as the batter's appearance became an official plate appearance.
    W Wins Games where the pitcher was awarded a win for being on the mound when his team took the lead for good.
    WHIP Walks + HITS per Inning Pitched Formula: { (BB+H)/IP }. Designed to measure a pitcher's ability to keep men off bases. Does not include batters hit by a pitch.
    WP Wild Pitches A pitch that eludes the catcher where the ball hits the ground before reaching the catcher or is deemed impossible for the catcher to handle. It is possible that a wild pitch is ruled a passed ball if the fault rests on the catcher.

    Fielding Statistics


    A Assists A fielding play where a ball thrown by the fielder to another fielder results in an out.
    DP Double Plays Instances where a player was involved in a play where at least 2 outs were required, most of which occur on groundballs to infielders.
    E Errors A play where the official scorer believes the fielder should have been able to make the play successfully but for unprovoked reasons, did not. Includes dropping fly balls, booting groundballs and making inaccurate throws.
    FPct Fielding Percentage Formula: { (PO+A)/(PO+A+E) }. A basic formula that explains the percent of success on fieldable balls. The limitation of fielding percentage is that it does not consider a player's range and therefore a player is not penalized for not being able to get to a ball that most fielders would be able to field.
    G Games Played Games played at the particular position
    GS Games Started Games started at the particular position but only for Major League data since 2003
    INN Innings Number of innings played a particular position. Available only for Major Leaguers since 2000.
    PO Putouts A fielding play where the player directly resulted in a batter being out. Includes catching a ball at a base, tagging a runner or catching a ball hit in the air.
    RF Range Factor Formula: { TC/G }. Considers the amount of balls successfully fielded per game. Does not consider the number of innings and therefore a late-inning replacement will have a low Range Factor will not be representative of his value. More suited to starting fielders.
    RF9 Range Factor per 9 innings Formula: { (9/inn)*(PO+A). Determines the number of plays made at a position per 9 innings thus allowing for comparison between fielders of the same position with an equal denominator. The range factor is intended to determine a player's range at a position compared to his peers but there are other factors that might contribute to a high range factor such as opportunity. A team facing more left-handed batters will have more opportunity for the right side of the infield.
    TC Total Chances Formula: { PO + A + E }. All possible chances in the field not including balls that a player could not reach.

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